Some of the most important analytic philosophers, in my opinion, are as follows: Ludwig Wittgenstein - Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus or The Philosophical Investigations(good luck understanding these w/o secondary literature, but they're must reads) use the following search parameters to narrow your results: To learn more about what is and is not considered philosophy for the purposes of this subreddit, see our FAQ. The work of these later philosophers have furthered Cohen's work by bringing to bear modern social science methods, such as rational choice theory, to supplement Cohen's use of analytic philosophical techniques in the interpretation of Marxian theory. In his important book. Phillips. [–]Sloph 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago (0 children). I hear he doesn't have anything to do with epistemology anymore and just teaches logic at Umass Lowell. Finally, analytic philosophy has featured a certain number of philosophers who were dualists, and recently forms of property dualism have had a resurgence; the most prominent representative is David Chalmers. Opinions are not valuable here, arguments are! [61] Rigorous efforts to pursue analyses of traditional aesthetic concepts were performed by Guy Sircello in the 1970s and 1980s, resulting in new analytic theories of love,[62] sublimity,[63] and beauty. However, as the influence of logical positivism began to decrease mid-century, analytic philosophers had renewed interest in ethics. Analytic philosophy is roughly a hundred years old, and it is now the dominant force within Western philosophy. In his important book The Principles of Mathematics, he sought to reduce mathematics to logic. Bas van Fraassen - Scientific Image (I may show my bias by including van Fraassen) Rendered by PID 24738 on r2-app-0b90d2c0514cf53a7 at 2020-12-03 02:09:21.411020+00:00 running a42a821 country code: US. Instead, the logical positivists adopted an emotivist theory, which was that value judgments expressed the attitude of the speaker. After World War II, during the late 1940s and 1950s, analytic philosophy became involved with ordinary-language analysis. While van Fraassen is important, he's certainly not central to the field. As a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-centuryphilosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Russell became an advocate of logical atomism. [17], During the 1950s, logical positivism was challenged influentially by Wittgenstein in the Philosophical Investigations, Quine in "Two Dogmas of Empiricism", and Sellars in Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind. Related subjects, such as social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and philosophy of history, became only marginal topics of English-language philosophy during this period. Word-for-word, I don't think there's anything as influential as the Gettier Paper. "[5][6], Analytic philosophy is often understood in contrast to other philosophical traditions, most notably continental philosophies such as existentialism, phenomenology, and Hegelianism. People like me, who have been trying to do philosophy for more than forty years, do in due course learn, if they’re lucky, how to do what they’ve been trying to do: that is, they do learn how to do philosophy. I recommend this anthology for a good grounding in analytic philosophy. Posts must not only have a philosophical subject matter, but must also present this subject matter in a developed manner. Contemporary analytic philosophers, feminist and nonfeminist, can be characterized roughly as follows: they consider (some of) Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, and the Logical Positivists to be their intellectual ancestors; they tend to prize explicit argumentation and the literal, precise, and clear use of language; they often value the roles of philosophy of language, … During the 1960s, criticism from within and without caused the analytic movement to abandon its linguistic form. Lennox, James G., "Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism" in Sakar and Plutynski (eds.). Although that attitude was adopted originally to promote scientific investigation by rejecting grand metaphysical systems, it had the side effect of making (ethical and aesthetic) value judgments (as well as religious statements and beliefs) meaningless. Philosophers such as David Kellogg Lewis[43] and David Armstrong[44] developed elaborate theories on a range of topics such as universals,[45][46] causation,[47] possibility and necessity,[48] and abstract objects. There is, I think, a widespread presumption within the tradition that it is often possible to make philosophical progress by intensively investigating a small, circumscribed range of philosophical issues while holding broader, systematic questions in abeyance".[20]. Another influential philosopher, Pavel Tichý initiated Transparent Intensional Logic, an original theory of the logical analysis of natural languages—the theory is devoted to the problem of saying exactly what it is that we learn, know and can communicate when we come to understand what a sentence means. In any case, it can introduce people to new philosophers and ideas. After 1960, anglophone philosophy began to incorporate a wider range of interests, opinions, and methods. of great importance. Other important figures in its history include the logical positivists (particularly Rudolf Carnap), W. V. O. Quine, Saul Kripke, and Karl Popper. Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy using analysis which is popular in the Western World and particularly the Anglosphere, which began around the turn of the 20th century in the contemporary era and continues today. Please direct all questions to /r/askphilosophy. Practitioners of types of philosophizing that are not in the analytic tradition—such as phenomenology, classical pragmatism, existentialism, or Marxism—feel it necessary to define their position in relation to analytic philosophy. You could narrow down the issue and ask, say, "which color is the most important road sign color", and then people might be able to seriously consider the issue, but the question asked in full generality is simply going to lead to a bunch of people making arbitrary assumptions and going off of gut feel. [22], John Searle suggests that the obsession with the philosophy of language during the 20th century has been superseded by an emphasis on the philosophy of mind,[23] in which functionalism is currently the dominant theory. losophy which insists that analytic philosophers strive to present reasons for their views. [–]WittgensteinBerySwne 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (1 child). This is closely related to the opinion that relations between items are internal relations, that is, properties of the nature of those items. Apparently, ‘speculative’, as used by analytic philosophers, is not a descriptive term. 0 Tag’s. Although not an analytic philosopher, Jürgen Habermas is another prominent—if controversial—author of contemporary analytic political philosophy, whose social theory is a blend of social science, Marxism, neo-Kantianism, and American pragmatism. Mirror, sure. [17] Still, many philosophers in Britain and America still consider themselves "analytic philosophers". I will second Rorty, but I have to admit that that's probably because CIS is what made me major in Philosophy. Good list, but I would throw in Rorty - Contingency, etc., as a counterweight. [–]walkertalking[S] 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (1 child). Another development of political philosophy was the emergence of the school of analytical Marxism. Then maybe Parfit's Reasons and Persons to round things out with ethics/identity. My top five would include those two, Wittgenstein, Quine and Russell or Frege. While schools such as logical positivism emphasize logical terms, supposed to be universal and separate from contingent factors (such as culture, language, historical conditions), ordinary-language philosophy emphasizes the use of language by ordinary people. For example, the English word "is" has three distinct meanings which predicate logic can express as follows: Russell sought to resolve various philosophical problems by applying such logical distinctions, most famously in his analysis of definite descriptions in "On Denoting" (1905).[13]. [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). This resulted in two main trends. Verificationism is now considered completely discredited by the people who are right about things. There are currently three almost identical submissions (of the "best X" kind) in the frontpage, skimming. Hmmm... we should ask him what he's up to... [–]Taure 11 points12 points13 points 7 years ago (10 children), You may have accidentally alighted upon one of the big differences between continental and analytic philosophy. Behaviorism later became much less popular, in favor of type physicalism or functionalism, theories that identified mental states with brain states. Eventually, analytic philosophers will be forced to define truth as the absence of non-being (double negative), and this will only make sense in the presence of a totalizing or monistic system. Dennett's version is more balanced; it explains rather than denying. Exceptions are made only for posts about philosophers with substantive content, e.g. Bonjour, Laurence, "Recent Work on the Internalism–Externalism Controversy" in Dancy, Sosa, and Steup (eds. The following (not exhaustive) list of items require moderator pre-approval: meta-posts, posts to products, services or surveys, links to other areas of reddit, AMAs. Categories . "Environmental Ethics", See Hursthouse, Rosalind (2003). Popper's The Logic of Scientific Discovery or his Postscript are, I think, better than any of his lectures simply because they're far more detailed expressing his turns to methodology and metaphysics. By the time he's writing "On Behaviorism" the differences between his behaviorism and the cognitive paradigm that replaced it are less significant than philosophers familiar only with his early work realize. If you are feeling suicidal, please get help by visiting /r/suicidewatch or using other resources. Many good suggestions already made in this thread. These theories were not without their critics. Your specific example is false: verificationism and behaviorism are not dead. Slurs, racism, and bigotry are absolutely not permitted. My dream is to strike gold like Gettier did. A philosophical idea that can help us understand why time is moving slowly during the pandemic. There is no good answer. In his important book The Principles of Mathematics, he … In recent years, a central focus of research in the philosophy of mind has been consciousness. [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (3 children). [2][3][4] It also takes things piecemeal, "an attempt to focus philosophical reflection on smaller problems that lead to answers to bigger questions. [–]arkasia 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (1 child). During the late 1920s to 1940s, a group of philosophers of the Vienna Circle and the Berlin Circle developed Russell and Wittgenstein's formalism into a doctrine known as "logical positivism" (or logical empiricism). I'm not saying that the philosophers cited are objectively the most important, but it can be interesting to hear people's subjective opinions. Hahahaha "living off it." From about 1910 to 1930, analytic philosophers like Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein emphasized creating an ideal language for philosophical analysis, which would be free from the ambiguities of ordinary language that, in their opinion, often made philosophy invalid. [–][deleted] 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago (0 children). [–][deleted] -2 points-1 points0 points 7 years ago (8 children). He's accepting the terms as accurate but not pretending to be rehashing the versions that so many have rejected. By the time they have arrived at this position, analytic philosophers will have abandoned analysis and be forced to adopt some version of Hegel. Russell, during his early career, along with his collaborator Alfred North Whitehead, was much influenced by Gottlob Frege (1848–1925), who developed predicate logic, which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible using the ancient Aristotelian logic. [–]NeoPlatonist 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children), [–]ConclusivePostscript 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago (1 child), Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations. This isn't an effective way to introduce people to new content because the answers consist mostly of popular philosophers everyone already heard of. During recent decades there have also been several critiques of liberalism, including the feminist critiques of Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin, the communitarian critiques of Michael Sandel and Alasdair MacIntyre (although neither of them endorses the term), and the multiculturalist critiques of Amy Gutmann and Charles Taylor. [54] The philosophy of biology has also undergone considerable growth, particularly due to the considerable debate in recent years over the nature of evolution, particularly natural selection. Willard van Orman Quine - Two Dogmas of Empiricism Interest in its historical development is increasing, but there has hitherto been no sustained attempt to elucidate what it currently amounts to, and how it differs from so-called 'continental' philosophy. Although contemporary philosophers who self-identify as "analytic" have widely divergent interests, assumptions, and methods—and have often rejected the fundamental premises that defined analytic philosophy before 1960—analytic philosophy today is usually considered to be determined by a particular style,[2] characterized by precision and thoroughness about a specific topic, and resistance to "imprecise or cavalier discussions of broad topics". This is extremely historically significant in analytic philosophy. [16] In contrast to earlier analytic philosophers (including the early Wittgenstein) who thought philosophers should avoid the deceptive trappings of natural language by constructing ideal languages, ordinary-language philosophers claimed that ordinary language already represents many subtle distinctions not recognized in the formulation of traditional philosophical theories or problems. It has informed pretty much all work in epistemology since it was published simply by pointing out in two pages that we can have justified true beliefs that don't count as knowledge according to the traditional view of what knowledge is. Thank you all - I'm keeping a running list and will, in the coming years, try to tackle as many of these works as I can. Definitions of List of analytic philosophers, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of List of analytic philosophers, analogical dictionary of List of analytic philosophers (English) G.E.M. In the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Scandinavia, Australia, and New Zealand, the overwhelming majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments. Current analytic political philosophy owes much to John Rawls, who in a series of papers from the 1950s onward (most notably "Two Concepts of Rules" and "Justice as Fairness") and his 1971 book A Theory of Justice, produced a sophisticated defense of a generally liberal egalitarian account of distributive justice. Comments which blatantly do not contribute to the discussion may be removed, particularly if they consist of personal attacks. Dennett's position is different from Skinner's but it's very clearly still a form of behaviorism. Wikipedia quotes Dennett as saying "I am ready to come out of the closet as some sort of verificationist"1 and "Daniel Dennett likewise acknowledges himself to be a type of behaviorist"2. Nagel's "What is it Like to be a Bat?" Posts about well-trod issues (e.g. [7], The history of analytic philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "20th-/21st-century analytic philosophy") is usually thought to begin with the rejection of British idealism, a neo-Hegelian movement. The positivists adopted the verification principle, according to which every meaningful statement is either analytic or is capable of being verified by experience. In analytic philosophy, works of historical significance and works of current significance are not the same. [15] With the coming to power of Adolf Hitler and Nazism in 1933, many members of the Vienna and Berlin Circles fled to Britain and the US, which helped to reinforce the dominance of logical positivism and analytic philosophy in anglophone countries. A perfect example would be verificationism/behaviourism. Willard Van Orman Quine (Yes, his name is awesome) He came out at #5 in this survey of the most important philosophers of the last 200 years (at least by Condorcet scoring). Many of the historical greats were involved in either supporting or denying verificationism. In addition to his academic work, Russell played an active role in many social and political campaigns. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Post titles cannot consist only in questions, even if the title of the linked material is a question. He supported women's suffrage, was imprisoned for his pacifism during World War I and was a founder of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. [64], "Without exception, the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy, and among the leading philosophers in the United States, all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers. A large portion of current epistemological research is intended to resolve the problems that Gettier's examples presented to the traditional justified true belief model of knowledge, including developing theories of justification in order to deal with Gettier's examples, or giving alternatives to the justified true belief model. For them, philosophy concerned the clarification of thoughts, rather than having a distinct subject matter of its own. But although I’ve learned how to do philosophy, nobody ever told me how do it, and, so far as I would guess, nobody will have told you how to do it, or is likely to tell you how … As already pointed out, analytics typically don't dwell on history, so I'll mention some more recent works (relative to the foundational works of Russell, Carnap, Frege, et al.) Hegel. I'm suprised noone's mentioned A J Ayer here- Language, Truth and Logic is one of the most important analytical works in my opinion. [–]NeoPlatonist 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (3 children), Wittgenstein - Philosophical Investigations, Tractatus, [–]adodger 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (2 children). Austin's philosophy of speech acts. [1][2] They have done so largely by expanding the notion of "analytic philosophy" from the specific programs that dominated anglophone philosophy before 1960 to a much more general notion of an "analytic" style. Spring 2018 AMA Series - Announcement & Hub Post! Austin. Users with a history of such comments may be banned. These works are essential reading for anyone who wishes to understand the contemporary philosophical climate. [–]fitzgeraldthisside 4 points5 points6 points 7 years ago (1 child). Blinded by the Enlightenment: Why hyper-rationalism leads to political failure. Its revolutionary ideas include Russell's Paradox, a problem which inspired Ludwig Wittgenstein to pursue philosophy. The best known theories are Daniel Dennett's heterophenomenology, Fred Dretske and Michael Tye's representationalism, and the higher-order theories of either David M. Rosenthal—who advocates a higher-order thought (HOT) model—or David Armstrong and William Lycan—who advocate a higher-order perception (HOP) model. [–]Taure 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (2 children). I am an immense fan of both van Fraassen and Popper, but I don't think van Fraassen's work deserves to be top-five as well. Today, contemporary normative ethics is dominated by three schools: consequentialism, virtue ethics, and deontology. Consider this a kind of olive branch. [19], Scott Soames agrees that clarity is important: analytic philosophy, he says, has "an implicit commitment—albeit faltering and imperfect—to the ideals of clarity, rigor and argumentation" and it "aims at truth and knowledge, as opposed to moral or spiritual improvement [...] the goal in analytic philosophy is to discover what is true, not to provide a useful recipe for living one's life". [39] Using first-hand remarks (which was later published in Philosophical Investigations, Culture and Value, and other works), philosophers such as Peter Winch and Norman Malcolm developed what has come to be known as contemplative philosophy, a Wittgensteinian school of thought rooted in the "Swansea tradition," and which includes Wittgensteinians such as Rush Rhees, Peter Winch, and D.Z. See here for an example of a suitable abstract. Wittgenstein’s interest in Spengler, Spranger, etc. The history of analytic philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "20th-/21st-century analytic philosophy") is usually thought to begin with the rejection of British idealism, a neo-Hegelian movement. [–]illogician 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (1 child). What would you say are the top 5 most important works of Analytic philosophy that are "must-reads" in terms of grasping its characteristic methods and conclusions, and its greatest figures? This means that the more powerful theses of the analytic philosophers who had gone before, that the analysis of language enables us to avoid or /r/philosophy is intended for philosophical material and discussion. Posts must not be behind any sort of paywall or registration wall. You're thinking of On Denoting by Russell. [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago* (4 children). [–][deleted] -1 points0 points1 point 7 years ago (0 children). [–]Taure 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (6 children). [9] An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism—the opinion that there are aspects of the world that can be known only by knowing the whole world. In that book, Cohen used logical and linguistic analysis to clarify and defend Marx's materialist conception of history. This was changed radically, and almost single-handedly, by John Rawls in a series of papers from the 1950s onward (most notably "Two Concepts of Rules" and "Justice as Fairness") which culminated in his monograph A Theory of Justice in 1971, adducing philosophical grounds for defe… I always find this kind of thread interesting. Please contact the moderators for pre-approval. They go overboard, meet resistance, and the whole idea gets discredited, baby with the bathwater. [–]Sloph 1 point2 points3 points 7 years ago (3 children). More important, the development of modern symbolic logic seemed to promise help in solving philosophical problems—and logic is as a … Since Goodman, aesthetics as a discipline for analytic philosophers has flourished. In particular, communitarians challenge the liberal assumption that the individual can be considered as fully autonomous from the community in which he lives and is brought up. [34]:3, As with the study of ethics, early analytic philosophy tended to avoid the study of philosophy of religion, largely dismissing (as per the logical positivists) the subject as part of metaphysics and therefore meaningless. (1998). At a minimum, this includes: stating the problem being addressed; stating the thesis; stating how the thesis contributes to the problem; outlining some alternative answers to the same problem; saying something about why the stated thesis is preferable to the alternatives; anticipating some objections to the stated thesis and giving responses to them. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. More contemporary Analytic Philosophy has also included extensive work in other areas of philosophy, such as in Ethics by Phillipa Foot (1920 - ), R. M. Hare (1919 - 2002) and J. L. Mackie (1917 - 1981); in Political Philosophy by John Rawls (1921 - 2002) and Robert Nozick (1938 - 2002); in Aesthetics by Arthur Danto (1924 - 2013); and in Philosophy of Mind by Daniel Dennett (1942 - … During this phase, Russell and Wittgenstein sought to understand language (and hence philosophical problems) by using logic to formalize how philosophical statements are made. Motivated by the logical positivists' interest in verificationism, logical behaviorism was the most prominent theory of mind of analytic philosophy for the first half of the 20th century. It wont take you long to recognize the difference in style of writing, clarity, and even subject matter between these authors and their continental counterparts (Hegel or Heidegger). I've always been immersed in what would be deemed "Continental" philosophy (Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Hegel, Heidegger, Sartre) but my education in Analytic philosophy is woefully lacking. These two constituted the entire universe of meaningful judgments; anything else was nonsense. Get an ad-free experience with special benefits, and directly support Reddit. See also our discussion of philosophy and mental health issues here. Analytic philosophy is characterized by an emphasis on language, known as the linguistic turn, and for its clarity and rigor in arguments, making use of formal logic and mathematics, and, to a lesser degree, the natural sciences. Born in 1872 into an aristocratic family, Bertrand Russell is widely regarded as one of the founders of Analytic philosophy, which is today the dominant philosophical tradition in the English-speaking world. Isaiah Berlin also had a lasting influence on both analytic political philosophy and liberalism with his lecture "Two Concepts of Liberty". But you'll note that he said he was "some sort of" the first and "a type of" the second. However, verificationism is now completely discredited, and almost completely irrelevant to any current major debate in analytic philosophy. [–]tablefor1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). [35] The demise of logical positivism renewed interest in philosophy of religion, prompting philosophers like William Alston, John Mackie, Alvin Plantinga, Robert Merrihew Adams, Richard Swinburne, and Antony Flew not only to introduce new problems, but to re-study classical topics such as the nature of miracles, theistic arguments, the problem of evil, (see existence of God) the rationality of belief in God, concepts of the nature of God, and many more.[36]. Posts must be about philosophy proper, rather than only tangentially connected to philosophy. Thus a picture of the universe can be construed using expressing atomic facts in the form of atomic propositions and linking them using logical operators. For example, in this view, saying, "Killing is wrong", is equivalent to saying, "Boo to murder", or saying the word "murder" with a particular tone of disapproval. Quine. [50] Important also for the revival of metaphysics was the further development of modal logic, including the work of Saul Kripke, who argued in Naming and Necessity and elsewhere for the existence of essences and the possibility of necessary, a posteriori truths. Analytic philosophers in the 20th century, on the other hand, were less inclined to appeal ultimately to direct introspection. Additionally, Russell adopted Frege's predicate logic as his primary philosophical method, a method Russell thought could expose the underlying structure of philosophical problems. Due to the commitments to empiricism and symbolic logic in the early analytic period, early analytic philosophers often thought that inquiry in the ethical domain could not be made rigorous enough to merit any attention. Twentieth-century meta-ethics has two origins. In Kriegel & Williford (eds. [26] It was only with the emergence of ordinary language philosophers that ethics started to become an acceptable area of inquiry for analytic philosophers. The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. Susanne Langer[59] and Nelson Goodman[60] addressed these problems in an analytic style during the 1950s and 1960s. He thereby argued that the universe is the totality of actual states of affairs and that these states of affairs can be expressed by the language of first-order predicate logic. As non-cognitivism, the is/ought distinction, and the naturalistic fallacy began to be called into question, analytic philosophers showed a renewed interest in the traditional questions of moral philosophy. and join one of thousands of communities. But because value judgments are of significant importance in human life, it became incumbent on logical positivism to develop an explanation of the nature and meaning of value judgments. Consequentialist libertarianism also derives from the analytic tradition. 0 examples. Karl Popper - Two Meanings of Falsifiability, or any of his lectures on falsifiability. A significant feature of analytic philosophy since approximately 1970 has been the emergence of applied ethics—an interest in the application of moral principles to specific practical issues. Possibly the greatest paper of analytic philosophy, Quine's Two Dogmas of Empiricism, is only really understandable in the context of verificationism. Examples include Ryle, who tried to dispose of "Descartes' myth", and Wittgenstein. Adams worked on the relationship of faith and morality. I found Jay Rosenbergs "Wittgenstein's Self-Criticisms or 'Whatever Happened to Picture Theory" to be pretty exhaustive on the topic of picture theory, which is a huge part of the Tractatus, but it doesn't really touch on atomism or on the "mystical" part toward the end of the tractatus.
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