[16] The grey mangrove can experience stunted growth in water conditions that are too saline, but thrive to their full height in waters where both salt and fresh water are present. Salvius, Stockholm. Forst.) The species can tolerate high salinity by excreting salts through its leaves.[15]. var. Wildlife Society of South Africa, Durban. alba (BI.) As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Bruguiera gymnorhiza has numerous names in English, the most common one is porbably Large-Leafed Orange Mangrove followed by Oriental Mangrove. This produces a large, fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling. Avicennia officinalis Auct. Geographic subdivisions for Avicennia marina var. Flora Zeylanica. Naidoo, Gonasageran (2016). The specific epithet marina refers to the habitat of the white mangrove, at the edge of the sea. Later generations of Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna'. Berjak, P., Campbell, G.K., Huckett, B.I. 2. It is one of the few mangroves found in the arid regions of the coastal Arabian Peninsula, mainly in sabkha environments in the United Arab Emirates,[3] Qatar,[4] Oman,[5] as well as in similar environments on both side of the Red Sea (in Yemen,[6] Saudi Arabia,[7] Egypt,[1] Eritrea,[8] and Sudan),[9] and Qatar[10] and southern Iran[11] along the Persian Gulf coast. Extensive underground root system with 'pencil roots' (pneumatophores or breathing roots) up to 90 mm long, sticking up out of the mud in dense stands spreading out from tree. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. Glen, H.F. 2004. Avicennia tomentosa var. ); mangal, towozi, txomahati (Xironga); isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu) - these from Van Wyk et al. http://plants.usda.gov. In Australia, it extends much farther south than other mangroves, occurring in every mainland state. Statistics. Northern Aborigines learned to harvest this starchy food by leaching out distasteful tannins and bitter substances which are the plant's chemical defence. Apart from a limited use in stabilising the shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation. Vierh. Avicennia flourishes where silt and mud has accumulated and in some harbours, especially those abutting cities it has become a problem species. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. 1967. APNI*. Mabberley, D.J. Scientific Name: Avicennia marina Arabic Name: Qurm قرم IUCN Red List Endangered Status: Least Concern The grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) is named after Avicenna or Ibn Sina (AD 980-1037), one of the most significant Islamic philosopher-scientists.It is a mangrove tree which can thrive in both high salinity and freshwater habitats.. As with all proper mangroves, the seeds germinate on the tree, and what is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling. Small to medium-sized tree (3-11 m), main trunk straight, up to 76 cm in diameter, with much branched, rounded crown. A few decades later the white mangrove was well illustrated in Van Rheede's (1678-1693) Hortus Malabaricus, and this work is the source of the generic name used by Linnaeus (1747, 1754). acutissima Stapf ex Mold. arabica Walp. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. Vierh. APNI* Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. Struik, Cape Town. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. australasica is a many-branched woody shrub or small tree favouring tidal flats of harbours and estuaries.It is easily recognized by its bushy growth with opposite fleshy leaves and aerial roots (pneumatophores) which rise vertically from the mud. Vierh. Leaves opposite, 30-100 x 12-40 mm, thick, leathery, shiny olive green above, with dense grey hairs beneath, margin entire with sharply or bluntly pointed tip, base narrowing, petiole short (5 mm long). marina. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Red List of South African Plants 2009. Instituto de Investigação Agronômica de Moçambique, Lourenço Marques. Preferred Names. Avicennia marina Name Synonyms Avicennia alba var. Aeg.-Arab. Keith Coates Palgrave's Trees of southern Africa. Australian Systematic Botany 4: 299-324. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. Avicennia marina var. Government Printer, Nairobi. Login to add your Comment ไม้พุ่มหรือไม้ต้น สูงได้ถึง 20 ม. http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T178828A7619457.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) traditional use. Bark pale yellowish green, with raised dots, flaking. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or … In the mangroves of southern Africa. 1977. It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. Gomes e Sousa, A. Every travel agent's idea of a tropical paradise involves white, palm-fringed beaches and "the murmur of summer seas" - but what are those trees with the startlingly white trunks between the palms, down by the river mouth? Duke, N.C. 1991. Its distribution is disjunct in Western Australia; the population of the Abrolhos Islands is 300 km (190 mi) further south than the nearest population of Shark Bay. This can travel far and wide propelled by wind and ocean currents, and so it is to be expected that trees are found wherever a suitable habitat exists. Flowers creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented. Scientific Name Common Name Photos; AVMA3: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Bakh. It is a pioneer in muddy soil conditions with a pH value of 6.5 to 8.0, but is intolerant of shade. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are … Genera Plantarum edn 5. Secura marina Forssk., Fl. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. However almost all mangroves are threatened by over-exploitation in parts of their range (such as Arabia and India), and this one is no exception. A numbered check-list of trees shrubs and noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya. Alice Campbell and Peter Gasson, Royal Botanic Gardens - Kew Although Avicennia is about the most cold-tolerant of the mangroves, it still needs warmth. Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). Avicennia marina Forssk. Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. Common names: white mangrove (Eng. These roots also anchor the plant during the frequent inundation of seawater in the soft substrate of tidal systems. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or … Avicennia, also called black mangrove, genus comprising at least eight species of trees or shrubs in the family Acanthaceae. Avicennia marina ssp. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. alba (Blume) Bakh. australasica: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.) MAP CONTROLS 1. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. Synonyms . Sceura marina Forssk. Vierh. Scientific Names. ... Avicennia marina (Forssk.) As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) The genus Avicennia includes between 4 and 14 species, depending on the limits one adopts for a species. Linnaeus, C. 1754. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. Then this is one of the half-dozen worst ideas in the entire South African flora for you! Avicennia marina var. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. A number of botanists have proposed division of the species, but currently three subspecies are recognised: Data related to Avicennia marina at Wikispecies This is a pioneer mangrove, and among the first to colonise open tidal habitats, later being restricted to the more inland parts of the swamp where conditions are at their most extreme. Briza Academic, Pretoria. National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA. It is distributed along Africa's east coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia. Common names: white mangrove (Eng. Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. 2011. Avicennia bicolor Standl. australasica (Walp. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1973. Their fleshy, leathery leaves are opposite and entire and feature salt-exuding glands on the upper and lower surfaces. Around Kosi Bay, the leafy branches provide closures for fish traps, and further north in East Africa the hard, yellow-brown wood is used for making the ribs of dhows (traditional Arab sailing vessel). Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae).As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. Fruit a green, oval, two-valved capsule 20-25 mm diam. & Pammenter, N.W. Pages in category "Avicennia marina" This category contains only the following page. Avicennia marina var. As with other Avicennia species, it has a… (2009). This colonisation of southerly climes may have occurred relatively recently, perhaps several thousand years ago, when they were transferred by the Leeuwin Current. – gray mangrove. Gillett, J.B. & McDonald, P.G. comm.) Linnaeus, C. 1747. The bark has been used for tanning and for the preparation of a brown dye. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Avicennia tomentosa arabica Walp. Subordinate Taxa. Grey Mangrove, White Mangrove. ; seed developing on the tree, fruit usually splitting after falling; water-dispersed. Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. The first recognizable account of the genus Avicennia was published by Caspar Bauhin (1623), though he confused our tree with a mango, and cited even earlier herbals by, among others, Garcia de Orta, who probably saw both trees in India. A bird in Muthupet.JPG 2,288 × 1,712; 793 KB. [12][13] The species is also found in Somalia.[14]. Johannes van Someren, Amsterdam. It is a common and often dominant constituent of mangrove swamps (usually the inland fringes of mangrove associations), and is also a pioneer of new mud banks; sea level. )Moldenke APNI* Avicennia marina var. Pooley's Trees of eastern South Africa. resinifera (G. Dictionary of names for southern African trees. Avicennia alba Bl. Unusually among mangroves, these trees can exude excess salt through their leaves, and it is not uncommon to find salt crystals adhering to the leaves. Synonyms: Avicennia marina var. The genus Avicennia is named after one of the greatest luminaries of mediaeval Islamic science, the Persian physician, naturalist, philosopher and mathematician Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abd Allah (Abu Ali Alhosain Ibn Sina, 980-1037 AD). Common name. Forst.) Vierh. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. var. And finally, being a mangrove this tree needs prodigious amounts of water. Vierh. Avicennia — Blühender Zweig der Schwarzen Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) Systematik Asteriden Euasterid … Deutsch Wikipedia. gray mangrove White mangrove grows on the inland side of tropical and subtropical coastal swamps, along the east coast of Africa from about East London to Sudan (Red Sea coast), on the coasts of Arabia, India, northern Australia and on every island in the Indian Ocean. The Plant List includes 31 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus Avicennia.Of these 8 are accepted species names. Mabberley's Plant-book, edn 3. Pinax Theatri Botanici. – gray mangrove. Van Rheede tot Drakenstein, H. 1678--1693. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. 14 plant name records match your search criteria Avicennia marina.The results are below. Van Wyk, A.E. Vierh. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than 1 cm across, and occur in clusters of three to five. Grey mangrove is a highly variable tree, with a number of ecotypes, and in forms closely resembling other species. Avicennia marina var. marina : AVMAR: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) As with other Avicennia species, it has aerial roots (pneumatophores); these grow to a height of about 20 cm (5 in), and a diameter of 1 cm. In South Australia along the Barker Inlet and Port River in Gulf St Vincent, as well as in sheltered bays in Spencer Gulf and the west coast of Eyre Peninsula, A. marina forests form hatcheries for much of the state's fish and shellfish commercial and recreational fisheries. Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud. J.Everett APNI* . However, other early explorers sailed to the Caribbean, and A. germinans (L.) L. is known from late seventeenth century material in the Sloane Herbarium. Family Acanthaceae. [15] The most inland occurrence of mangroves in Australia is a stand of grey mangroves in the Mandora Marsh, some 60 km from the coast. Description: Of all the species in nature, the mangrove is among the most fascinating and beneficial to humanity.This hardy tree acts as a natural windbreak, protecting us against tidal surges and purifying the surrounding water. Salvius, Stockholm. Distribution. latifolia Moldenke Avicennia balanophora Stapf & Moldenke ex Moldenke Avicennia mindanaense Elmer Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf ex Ridl. Bakh. Avicennia marina; Media in category "Avicennia marina" The following 86 files are in this category, out of 86 total. var. & Van Wyk, P. 1997. Moistened seeds could be heaped into stone ovens, sealed with bark, baked for two hours then soaked in a pool dug in sand before eating. Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. Struik, Cape Town. Pollinators and insect interactions are unknown, but Palmer & Pitman (1973) note that the tree provides nesting sites for several coastal bird species. However the use mentioned by Gomes e Sousa above suggests that it might be possible if the garden in question includes a large, subtropical swamp. Jacana, Johannesburg. H.F. GlenKwazulu-Natal HerbariumJune 2011, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Soil type: Sandy, Clay, Loam, Brack/saline, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer. SAPPI What's in a Name? resinifera (G. Balkema, Cape Town.Raimondo, D., Von Staden, L. Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. Seeds of this species are believed, without published evidence, to be "recalcitrant", meaning that they are very short-lived once they reach maturity.The seeds germinate in the fruit while still on the tree. Common Names: Afiafy (Malgache-Betsimisaraka & Tanosy, Madagascar, Central and southeast) The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are recorded on herbarium specimens, as are many other vernacular names within its vast range. Common name: Grey Mangrove. Homonyms Avicennia marina Vierh. Strelitzia 25. I have never seen a diseased tree of this species. marina: AVMAM: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Bauhin, C. 1623. It occurs in New Zealand between 34 and 38 degrees south; its Māori name is mānawa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. marina autonym. Avicennia has a wide geographical distribution, with members found in intertidal estuaries along many of the world’s tropical and warm temperate coasts. This also explains the lack of overlap between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus. They thus sailed past all the Avicennia localities in the Atlantic without stopping, and only made landfall in the Indian Ocean. Results. "The mangroves of South Africa: An ecophysiological review". Impensis Joannis Regis, Basel. Vierh. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. – gray mangrove : References Expert(s): Expert: Notes: ... in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Avicennia : Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Reference for: Avicennia ... Common Name: Scientific Name Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. )J.Everett 1994. pronounced: av-ih-SEN-ee-uh mar-EE-nuh subspecies aw-strah-LAY-see-kuh (Acanthaceae — the black-eyed Susan family) common name: grey mangrove. Boon, R. 2010. Avicennia bicolor. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Dendrologia de Moçambique. With that background it is hardly surprising that I have never seen nor heard of anyone trying to grow the white mangrove in a garden. Avicennia marina subsp. australasica is the world's southernmost mangrove, being reported from the south-eastern tip of Australia near Melbourne, and from New Zealand near Auckland. Vierh._PROTA", "FAO Corporate Document Repository_Sudan", "A Systematic Revision of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avicennia_marina&oldid=977801869, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Use Australian English from November 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 September 2020, at 02:22. & Ngoc Nam, V. (2010). Avicennia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Common names Mabberley (2008) reports that the timber, like that of many mangroves, is resistant to termites. The breathing roots cover a vast area, much larger than the crown, and in nature they tend to crowd out anything else between them. That the earliest published reference should be to an Indian Ocean species and not to an Atlantic one is not remarkable when one considers the route that the early Portuguese and Dutch traders used between Europe and India. Reference taxon from World Plants in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. ); witseebasboom (Afr. Curiously, experiments at the then University of Durban-Westville (G.S. Name . Naidoo, pers. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. ... Avicennia tonduzii Mold. 137. marina. Read on and find out. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. — Symbol AVGE Common Name black mangrove Botanical Family Verbenaceae … Scientific plant list. Click here to register. The name gymnorhiza comes from two Greek words "gymno" naked and "rhiza" root, naked root which refers to the exposed knee roots of Bruguiera gymnorhiza emerging from the ground. Avicennia lanata Ridl. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) [16], Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions.
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