The classification is hierarchical, with vegetation units described at levels ranging from broad landscape-scale ecological systems to local communities. Devoid of trees except stunted shrubs in the southern part of tundra biome, ground flora includes lichen, mosses and sedges. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 946 times. The above mentioned major climatic types are further subdivided depending upon the seasonal distribution of rainfall or degree of dryness or cold. This “structural and functional system of communities of living organisms and their environment is called ecological system or in short the ecosystem”. Wladimir Köppen (1846– 1940; pronounced like “kur-pin” with a silent r) was a Russian-born German climatologist who was also an amateur botanist. cow, rabbit. represents a highly integrated and interacting zone comprising of atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water) and lithosphere (land). 4. Aggregating weather statistics over periods of 30 years (“climate normals”). A well developed ecotones contain some organisms which are entirely different from that of the adjoining communities. 3. Complete
The trophic level interaction involves three concepts namely :‐. The components of the ecosystem is categorised into abiotic of non‐living and biotic of living components. This type of pyramid can be seen in grassland ecosystem. Such as carbon, carbon dioxide, water, sulphur, nitrates, phosphates, and ions of various metals are essential for organisms to survive. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. The modified Köppen system describes five major climate groups (groups A, B, C, D, and E) which are subdivided into a total of 14 individual climate types, along with the special category of highland (H) climate. The seasons of dryness are indicated by the small letters. The modified Köppen system describes five major climate groups (groups A, B, C, D, and E) which are subdivided into a total of 14 individual climate types, along with the special category of highland (H) climate. Phanerogams: The document 2. The following chart shows the types of Natural Ecosystem − To compare the functional roles of the trophic levels in an ecosystem, an energy pyramid is most suitable. Life in the biosphere is abundant between 200 metres (660 feet) below the surface of the ocean and about 6,000 metres (20,000 feet) above sea level. As the altitude increases, the air becomes colder and drier, affecting wild life accordingly. 3. In this approach individuals in each trophic level are weighed instead of being counted. 2. The flora is drought resistance vegetation such as cactus, euphorbias, sagebrush. Consumers can be divided into two broad groups. Many topper Like Kanishak Kataria will tell you that Mains is what determine your rank. (ii) Micro consumers ‐ Saprotrophs (decomposers or osmotrophs). this is your one stop solution. Reptiles and amphibians are almost absent. Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover, winds, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold front or warm front, excessive heat, heat waves and more, By aggregates of weather statistics over periods of 30 years. Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers. Ecotone :‐ a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems. a part of the earth where life can exist. B. Mesophytes. using search above. Other consumer trophic levels are in between. Ecosystem – Components and Classification, Ecotone, Functions of Ecosystem UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC, the answers and examples explain the meaning of chapter in the best manner. Taxonomic Systems. Organisms can tolerate only a certain range of temperature and humidity. Temperature and rainfall high. Hyper parasites being at higher trophic level represents higher in number. Biotic Components :Biotic components include living organisms comprising plants, animals and microbes and are classified according to their functional attributes into producers and consumers. UPSC. of 2. UPSC Botany optionals is usually taken by people from Botany or allied sciences degrees background like Agriculture, forestry, biochemistry, microbiology, food science, biotechnology, etc., Botany is also available as an optional for UPSC Indian Forest Service exam. An energy pyramid, reflects the laws of thermodynamics, with conversion of solar energy to chemical energy and heat energy at each trophic level and with loss of energy being depicted at each transfer to another trophic level. The first version of his climate classification scheme appeared in 1918, and he continued to modify and refine it for the rest of his life, the last version being published in 1936. It has the conditions intermediate to the adjacent ecosystems. 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