But what will those who maintain the soul to be a harmony say of this presence of virtue and vice in the soul?—will they say that here is another harmony, and another discord, and that the virtuous soul is harmonized, and herself being a harmony has another harmony within her, and that the vicious soul is inharmonical and has no harmony within her? And in some cases the name of the idea is not only attached to the idea in an eternal connection, but anything else which, not being the idea, exists only in the form of the idea, may also lay claim to it. For I was fascinated by them to such a degree that my eyes grew blind to things which I had seemed to myself, and also to others, to know quite well; I forgot what I had before thought self-evident truths; e.g. Then whatever the soul possesses, to that she comes bearing life? ECHECRATES: For the body is a source of endless trouble to us by reason of the mere requirement of food; and is liable also to diseases which overtake and impede us in the search after true being: it fills us full of loves, and lusts, and fears, and fancies of all kinds, and endless foolery, and in fact, as men say, takes away from us the power of thinking at all. Moreover, if you succeed in convincing us, that will be an answer to the charge against yourself. On the last morning we assembled sooner than usual, having heard on the day before when we quitted the prison in the evening that the sacred ship had come from Delos, and so we arranged to meet very early at the accustomed place. And in this the philosopher dishonours the body; his soul runs away from his body and desires to be alone and by herself? Nor am I any longer satisfied that I understand the reason why one or anything else is either generated or destroyed or is at all, but I have in my mind some confused notion of a new method, and can never admit the other. Endless, indeed, replied Simmias. Lest we become misologists, he replied, no worse thing can happen to a man than this. Certainly not. These are the sort of words, Simmias, which the true lovers of knowledge cannot help saying to one another, and thinking. Unless indeed you suppose, Socrates, that these notions are given us at the very moment of birth; for this is the only time which remains. PHAEDO: I should very much like to hear, he replied. Yes, I said, I have. Or if there were composition only, and no division of substances, then the chaos of Anaxagoras would come again. PHAEDO: Phaedo by Plato, part of the Internet Classics Archive. University of Toronto Press, 1982. And this impress was given by the odd principle? And they were said to have vowed to Apollo at the time, that if they were saved they would send a yearly mission to Delos. I should so like to hear about his death. Of all writers of speculative philosophy, both ancient and modern, there is probably no one who has attained so eminent a position as Plato. I agree with you, Socrates, he said. But now, inasmuch as the soul is manifestly immortal, there is no release or salvation from evil except the attainment of the highest virtue and wisdom. No; there were several of them with him. True. Apology, Crito, and Phaedo of Socrates. Plato – Phaedo (Full Text) | Genius These feelings about Phaedo, expressed by the anonymous student in a philosophical dialogue of Page 2/5 And now, if you please, let us return to the point of the argument at which we digressed. But there the whole earth is made up of them, and they are brighter far and clearer than ours; there is a purple of wonderful lustre, also the radiance of gold, and the white which is in the earth is whiter than any chalk or snow. Then these (so-called) equals are not the same with the idea of equality? There we used to wait talking with one another until the opening of the doors (for they were not opened very early); then we went in and generally passed the day with Socrates. The wise man will want to be ever with him who is better than himself. The full text is available online . Of course. What do you say? What do you say? The full text is available online . And some burst forth again on the opposite side, and some on the same side, and some wind round the earth with one or many folds like the coils of a serpent, and descend as far as they can, but always return and fall into the chasm. 25.2 MB Facsimile PDF small PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Socrates, Phaedrus. he said. Let us suppose them. and from the picture of Simmias, you may be led to remember Cebes? You would say: I will let alone puzzles of division and addition—wiser heads than mine may answer them; inexperienced as I am, and ready to start, as the proverb says, at my own shadow, I cannot afford to give up the sure ground of a principle. We may. Very true. And they may be supposed to find their prisons in the same natures which they have had in their former lives. Together they illustrate the birth of Platonic philosophy from Plato's reflections on Socrates' life and doctrines. Do not they, from knowing the lyre, form in the mind’s eye an image of the youth to whom the lyre belongs? The venture is a glorious one, and he ought to comfort himself with words like these, which is the reason why I lengthen out the tale. May I, or not? endobj A summary of the entirety of the Phaedo may be found on Wikipedia . What was the reason of this? True, he said. For after death, as they say, the genius of each individual, to whom he belonged in life, leads him to a certain place in which the dead are gathered together, whence after judgment has been given they pass into the world below, following the guide, who is appointed to conduct them from this world to the other: and when they have there received their due and remained their time, another guide brings them back again after many revolutions of ages.          ‘But when lust, ECHECRATES: Very true, said Cebes. Yes; some one told us about the trial, and we could not understand why, having been condemned, he should have been put to death, not at the time, but long afterwards. It cannot. I think that you will discover a way of propitiating him, said Cebes; I am sure that you have put the argument with Harmonia in a manner that I could never have expected. What then is to be the result? Not seen. Not at all, replied Simmias. SCENE: Under a plane-tree, by the banks of the Ilissus. of Plato's Phaedo: Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary. There is a doctrine whispered in secret that man is a prisoner who has no right to open the door and run away; this is a great mystery which I do not quite understand. And that by greatness only great things become great and greater greater, and by smallness the less become less? True. But I have nothing more to say, replied Simmias; nor can I see any reason for doubt after what has been said. Cope. And is not the feeling discreditable? In like manner you would be afraid to say that ten exceeded eight by, and by reason of, two; but would say by, and by reason of, number; or you would say that two cubits exceed one cubit not by a half, but by magnitude?-for there is the same liability to error in all these cases. Well, he said, you are aware that death is regarded by men in general as a great evil. But that after death the soul will continue to exist is not yet proven even to my own satisfaction. Impossible, he replied. Nothing particular, Crito, he replied: only, as I have always told you, take care of yourselves; that is a service which you may be ever rendering to me and mine and to all of us, whether you promise to do so or not. Certainly, he replied. Nationality: Ancient Greece Ex. Its middle-period classification puts it after “early” dialogues such as the Apology, Euthyphro, Crito, Protagoras, and others which present Socrates’ search… I was pleased, but in the pleasure there was also a strange admixture of pain; for I reflected that he was soon to die, and this double feeling was shared by us all; we were laughing and weeping by turns, especially the excitable Apollodorus—you know the sort of man? Search Field List. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, death scene from Phaedo, Edition 3 Plato The third edition of The Trial and Death of Socrates presents G. M. A. Grube's distinguished translations, as revised by John Cooper for Plato, Complete Works. and when the body is hungry, against eating? Then I must try to make a more successful defence before you than I did when before the judges. Full view only. Yes. The analogy which I will adduce is that of an old weaver, who dies, and after his death somebody says:—He is not dead, he must be alive;—see, there is the coat which he himself wove and wore, and which remains whole and undecayed. But you, if you are a philosopher, will certainly do as I say. True. A man of sense ought not to say, nor will I be very confident, that the description which I have given of the soul and her mansions is exactly true. That the wisest of men should be willing to leave a service in which they are ruled by the gods who are the best of rulers, is not reasonable; for surely no wise man thinks that when set at liberty he can take better care of himself than the gods take of him. And if any one assails you there, you would not mind him, or answer him, until you had seen whether the consequences which follow agree with one another or not, and when you are further required to give an explanation of this principle, you would go on to assume a higher principle, and a higher, until you found a resting-place in the best of the higher; but you would not confuse the principle and the consequences in your reasoning, like the Eristics—at least if you wanted to discover real existence. Certainly. And they were said to have vowed to Apollo at the time, that if they were saved they would send a yearly mission to Delos. And when some one breaks the lyre, or cuts and rends the strings, then he who takes this view would argue as you do, and on the same analogy, that the harmony survives and has not perished—you cannot imagine, he would say, that the lyre without the strings, and the broken strings themselves which are mortal remain, and yet that the harmony, which is of heavenly and immortal nature and kindred, has perished—perished before the mortal. For any man, who is not devoid of sense, must fear, if he has no knowledge and can give no account of the soul’s immortality. I will do my best, replied Socrates. 2. (But compare Republic.)          The soul grows clotted by contagion, Very true. Would you not say that he is entirely concerned with the soul and not with the body? (Compare Republic.) FREE DOWNLOAD!The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Are not these, Simmias and Cebes, the points which we have to consider? But she will calm passion, and follow reason, and dwell in the contemplation of her, beholding the true and divine (which is not matter of opinion), and thence deriving nourishment. Very true. Or did the authorities forbid them to be present—so that he had no friends near him when he died? Thence they again enter the earth, some of them making a long circuit into many lands, others going to a few places and not so distant; and again fall into Tartarus, some at a point a good deal lower than that at which they rose, and others not much lower, but all in some degree lower than the point from which they came. The odd. Surely he will, O my friend, if he be a true philosopher. She has not. And therefore has neither more nor less of discord, nor yet of harmony? Then bursting into tears he turned away and went out. Then, if we look at the matter thus, there may be reason in saying that a man should wait, and not take his own life until God summons him, as he is now summoning me. I dare say that the simile is not perfect—for I am very far from admitting that he who contemplates existences through the medium of thought, sees them only ‘through a glass darkly,’ any more than he who considers them in action and operation. But the soul which has been polluted, and is impure at the time of her departure, and is the companion and servant of the body always, and is in love with and fascinated by the body and by the desires and pleasures of the body, until she is led to believe that the truth only exists in a bodily form, which a man may touch and see and taste, and use for the purposes of his lusts,—the soul, I mean, accustomed to hate and fear and avoid the intellectual principle, which to the bodily eye is dark and invisible, and can be attained only by philosophy;—do you suppose that such a soul will depart pure and unalloyed? Yes. Phaedo is an account of the final hours before Socrates ’s execution in prison. Socrates said: You, my good friend, who are experienced in these matters, shall give me directions how I am to proceed. And in all these cases, the recollection may be derived from things either like or unlike? Will he not depart with joy? The man answered: We only prepare, Socrates, just so much as we deem enough. PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Phaedo, who is the narrator of the dialogue to Echecrates of Phlius. Quite true, Socrates. Selections from The Phaedo by Plato [The Phaedo tells the story of Socrates’ final moments spent, as one would expect, in philosophical dialogue with his friends. He assented. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Very good. Very true. Seeing then that the immortal is indestructible, must not the soul, if she is immortal, be also imperishable? Why, said Socrates,—is not Evenus a philosopher? Certainly not! Not by man, Socrates. Be of good cheer, then, my dear Crito, and say that you are burying my body only, and do with that whatever is usual, and what you think best. And you would loudly asseverate that you know of no way in which anything comes into existence except by participation in its own proper essence, and consequently, as far as you know, the only cause of two is the participation in duality—this is the way to make two, and the participation in one is the way to make one. So in my own case, I was afraid that my soul might be blinded altogether if I looked at things with my eyes or tried to apprehend them by the help of the senses. Selections from The Phaedo by Plato [The Phaedo tells the story of Socrates’ final moments spent, as one would expect, in philosophical dialogue with his friends. Yes, that is quite true, Socrates. For if what I say is true, then I do well to be persuaded of the truth, but if there be nothing after death, still, during the short time that remains, I shall not distress my friends with lamentations, and my ignorance will not last, but will die with me, and therefore no harm will be done. English translation with separate commentary that focuses on the dialogue’s argumentation. Certainly, he said. Yes, that is very likely, I said. Suppose, he said, that we endeavour, if possible, to determine what these are. An accident, Echecrates: the stern of the ship which the Athenians send to Delos happened to have been crowned on the day before he was tried. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation And, further, is not one part of us body, another part soul? And do not courageous men face death because they are afraid of yet greater evils? And whence did we obtain our knowledge? And therefore I maintain that I am right, Simmias and Cebes, in not grieving or repining at parting from you and my masters in this world, for I believe that I shall equally find good masters and friends in another world. Plato's Phaedo Commentary (1st ed., 22 mb .pdf, 25June15 ) The link above contains the 1st ed. He was beginning to grow cold about the groin, when he uncovered his face, for he had covered himself up, and said—they were his last words—he said: Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt? And to which class is the soul more nearly alike and akin, as far as may be inferred from this argument, as well as from the preceding one? My feeling is that the argument is where it was, and open to the same objections which were urged before; for I am ready to admit that the existence of the soul before entering into the bodily form has been very ingeniously, and, if I may say so, quite sufficiently proven; but the existence of the soul after death is still, in my judgment, unproven. And is the soul in agreement with the affections of the body? Purchase a copy of this text (not necessarily the same edition) from Amazon.com This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License . This text-based PDF or EBook was created from the HTML version of this book and is part of the Portable Library of Liberty. For it reminds me of a question which has been asked by many, and was asked of me only the day before yesterday by Evenus the poet—he will be sure to ask it again, and therefore if you would like me to have an answer ready for him, you may as well tell me what I should say to him:—he wanted to know why you, who never before wrote a line of poetry, now that you are in prison are turning Aesop’s fables into verse, and also composing that hymn in honour of Apollo. What do you mean? Certainly. But do you not see that this is what you imply when you say that the soul existed before she took the form and body of man, and was made up of elements which as yet had no existence? Socrates replied: And have you, Cebes and Simmias, who are the disciples of Philolaus, never heard him speak of this? Thus she seeks to live while she lives, and after death she hopes to go to her own kindred and to that which is like her, and to be freed from human ills. Phaedo (Full Text) Lyrics PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Phaedo, who is the narrator of the dialogue to Echecrates of Phlius. And this necessarily holds of all opposites, even though not always expressed in words—they are really generated out of one another, and there is a passing or process from one to the other of them? Such was the end, Echecrates, of our friend; concerning whom I may truly say, that of all the men of his time whom I have known, he was the wisest and justest and best. All have numerous perforations, and there are passages broad and narrow in the interior of the earth, connecting them with one another; and there flows out of and into them, as into basins, a vast tide of water, and huge subterranean streams of perennial rivers, and springs hot and cold, and a great fire, and great rivers of fire, and streams of liquid mud, thin or thick (like the rivers of mud in Sicily, and the lava streams which follow them), and the regions about which they happen to flow are filled up with them. The first edition of the novel was published in -380, and was written by Plato. Yes. Very true. It is not. Then we must have acquired the knowledge of equality at some previous time? Should you be considering some other matter I say no more, but if you are still in doubt do not hesitate to say exactly what you think, and let us have anything better which you can suggest; and if you think that I can be of any use, allow me to help you. Dorter, K. Plato’s Phaedo: An Interpretation. And that principle which repels the musical, or the just? And they are right, Simmias, in thinking so, with the exception of the words ‘they have found them out’; for they have not found out either what is the nature of that death which the true philosopher deserves, or how he deserves or desires death. What do you mean? Note : the numbers in parentheses represent the approximate number of full lines of text in each section or subsection, in the Greek text of the Budé edition.
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