Additionally, it is important to understand the lifecycle of the VMs and their changes in states as they move through the environment. Chong F, Carraro G, Wolter R: Multi-tenant data architecture. However, flaws in web applications may create vulnerabilities for the SaaS applications. This approach enables more efficient use of the resources but scalability is limited. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2008:9–18. Available: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Top_Ten_Project Available: Zhang Y, Liu S, Meng X: Towards high level SaaS maturity model: methods and case study. 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The service provider maintains the infrastructure for developing and running the applications. The adoption of SaaS applications may raise some security concerns. In Proceedings of the 33rd International convention MIPRO. 2012. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin; 2009:347–358. Virtual Networks increase the VMs interconnectivity, an important security challenge in Cloud Computing [51]. Accessed: 16-Jul-2011. TR/SE-0401 TR/SE-0401. Onwubiko C: Security issues to Cloud Computing. IBM J Res Dev 2009, 53(4):560–571. Accessed: 16-Jul-2011 http://www.keeneview.com/2009/03/what-is-platform-as-service-paas.html Online. Implementation, Management, and Security, CRC Press; 2009. Proceedings of Black Hat Security Conference, Washington, DC 2008. http://www.eecs.umich.edu/fjgroup/pubs/blackhat08-migration.pdf. One of the most significant barriers to adoption is security, followed by issues regarding compliance, privacy and legal matters [8]. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2010:88–92. 2009. Users are entitled to run any software with full control and management on the resources allocated to them [18]. Security concerns relate to risk areas such as external data storage, dependency on the “public” internet, lack of control, multi-tenancy and integration with internal security. Moreover, [69] describes that encryption can be used to stop side channel attacks on cloud storage de-duplication, but it may lead to offline dictionary attacks reveling personal keys. For the final model, applications can be scaled up by moving the application to a more powerful server if needed. In The 17th International workshop on quality of service. OWASP: The Ten most critical Web application Security risks. However, cloud Computing presents an added level of risk because essential services are often outsourced to a third party, which makes it harder to maintain data security and privacy, support data and service availability, and demonstrate compliance. Cloud Computing leverages many existing technologies such as web services, web browsers, and virtualization, which contributes to the evolution of cloud environments. Attack vect… In addition, we can see that in our search, many of the approaches, in addition to speaking about threats and vulnerabilities, also discuss other issues related to security in the Cloud such as the data security, trust, or security recommendations and mechanisms for any of the problems encountered in these environments. Security problems of PaaS clouds are explored and classified. We present here a categorization of security issues for Cloud Computing focused in the so-called SPI model (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS), identifying the main vulnerabilities in this kind of systems and the most important threats found in the literature related to Cloud Computing and its environment. Popovic K, Hocenski Z: Cloud Computing Security issues and challenges. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:35–41. SaaS users have less control over security among the three fundamental delivery models in the cloud. 2009. Security Implications: PaaS PaaS: Virtual Environments - Provides dynamic load balancing capacity across multiple file systems and machines. Certain security issues exist which prevents individuals and industries from using clouds despite its advantages. Springer Nature. In Information Security Curriculum Development Conference, Kennesaw, Georgia. Cloud Computing enables ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. To alleviate these concerns, a cloud solution provider must ensure that customers will continue to have the same security and privacy controls over their applications and services, provide evidence to customers that their organization are secure and they can meet their service-level agreements, and that they can prove compliance to auditors [12]. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2009:1–9. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2009:199–212. This model has drawbacks, but security issues are not so bad compared with the other models. In International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM), vol. Accessed: 02-Aug-2011 The Register, 08-Jun-2009. By contrast, the PaaS model offers greater extensibility and greater customer control. The dynamic credential changes its value once a user changes its location or when he has exchanged a certain number of data packets. In this section, we provide a brief description of each countermeasure mentioned before, except for threats T02 and T07. Most developers still deal with application security issues in isolation, without understanding the security of the "“full stack”". This technique consists in first breaking down sensitive data into insignificant fragments, so any fragment does not have any significant information by itself. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Available: . Grobauer B, Walloschek T, Stocker E: Understanding Cloud Computing vulnerabilities. Available: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/06/08/webhost_attack/. volume 10. Bisong A, Rahman S: An overview of the Security concerns in Enterprise Cloud Computing. Online. Like Table 2 it also describes the threats that are related to the technology used in cloud environments, and it indicates what cloud service models are exposed to these threats. A strong and effective authentication framework is essential to ensure that individual users can be correctly identified without the authentication system succumbing to the numerous possible attacks. The data breach has several consequences, some of which includes: Incident forensics and response leading to financial … Google Scholar. The virtual network model is composed of three layers: routing layers, firewall, and shared networks, which can prevent VMs from sniffing and spoofing. It’s important to understand the division of responsibility between you and Microsoft. This report includes centralized directory, access management, identity management, role-based access control, user access certifications, privileged user and access management, separation of duties, and identity and access reporting. Accessed: 05-Jun-2011 http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa479086.aspx Online. Security of PaaS clouds is considered from multiple perspectives including access control, privacy and service continuity while protecting both the service provider and the user. Implement general PaaS security best practices recommendations; Developing secure applications on Azure is a general guide to the security questions and controls you should consider at each phase of the software development lifecycle when developing applications for the cloud. This is true in any type of organization; however, in the cloud, it has a bigger impact because there are more people that interact with the cloud: cloud providers, third-party providers, suppliers, organizational customers, and end-users. Jaeger T, Schiffman J: Outlook: cloudy with a chance of Security challenges and improvements. Available: . PaaS providers are responsible for securing the platform software stack that includes the runtime engine that runs the customer applications. Hashizume K, Yoshioka N, Fernandez EB: Three misuse patterns for Cloud Computing. 2 0 obj Zhang S, Zhang S, Chen X, Huo X: Cloud Computing Research and Development Trend. Keeping the VMM as simple and small as possible reduces the risk of security vulnerabilities, since it will be easier to find and fix any vulnerability. Mell P, Grance T: The NIST definition of Cloud Computing. Zissis D, Lekkas D: Addressing Cloud Computing Security issues. IaaS provides a pool of resources such as servers, storage, networks, and other computing resources in the form of virtualized systems, which are accessed through the Internet [24]. Available: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/06/08/webhost_attack/. Web application scanners [71] is a program which scans web applications through the web front-end in order to identify security vulnerabilities. 10.1007/s11416-012-0168-x. Security of PaaS clouds is considered from multiple perspective including access control, service continuity and privacy while protecting together the service provider and the user. This can be possible because VM migration transfer the data over network channels that are often insecure, such as the Internet. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security, New York, NY, USA. Online. Largely because of the relatively lower degree of abstraction, IaaS offers greater tenant or customer control over security than do PaaS or SaaS [10]. One can either create her own VM image from scratch, or one can use any image stored in the provider’s repository. Security controls in Cloud Computing are, for the most part, no different than security controls in any IT environment. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2012:86–89. Future Internet 2012, 4(2):430–450. Zhao G, Liu J, Tang Y, Sun W, Zhang F, Ye X, Tang N: Cloud Computing: A Statistics Aspect of Users. Security problems of PaaS clouds are explored and classified. Ertaul L, Singhal S, Gökay S: Security challenges in Cloud Computing. IaaS providers must undertake a substantial effort to secure their systems in order to minimize these threats that result from creation, communication, monitoring, modification, and mobility [42]. Moreover, unintentionally data leakage can be introduced by VM replication [20]. Computer 2009, 42(8):106–108. For each vulnerability and threat, we identify what cloud service model or models are affected by these security problems. In the world of SaaS, the process of compliance is complex because data is located in the provider’s datacenters, which may introduce regulatory compliance issues such as data privacy, segregation, and security, that must be enforced by the provider. Misuse patterns describe how a misuse is performed from the point of view of the attacker. [64] proposes a secure live migration framework that preserves integrity and privacy protection during and after migration. Viega J: Cloud Computing and the common Man. Naehrig M, Lauter K, Vaikuntanathan V: Can homomorphic encryption be practical? Waltham, MA: Elsevier Inc; 2011. It provides the following security management features: access control framework, image filters, provenance tracking system, and repository maintenance services. This analysis offers a brief description of the vulnerabilities, and indicates what cloud service models (SPI) can be affected by them. PubMed Google Scholar. Xiaopeng G, Sumei W, Xianqin C: VNSS: a Network Security sandbox for virtual Computing environment. Li W, Ping L: Trust model to enhance Security and interoperability of Cloud environment. The VMM is a low-level software that controls and monitors its virtual machines, so as any traditional software it entails security flaws [45]. Edited by: Rosado DG, Mellado D, Fernandez-Medina E, Piattini M. Pennsylvania, United States: IGI Global; 2013:36–53. The public cloud refers to software, infrastructure, or platforms offered as a service by 3 rd parties over the Internet, referred to as Cloud Service Providers or CSPs. [52] proposes a security framework that customizes security policies for each virtual machine, and it provides continuous protection thorough virtual machine live migration. The question focus was to identify the most relevant issues in Cloud Computing which consider vulnerabilities, threats, risks, requirements and solutions of security for Cloud Computing. In the third maturity model multi-tenancy is added, so a single instance serves all customers [34]. Kitchenham B: Procedures for perfoming systematic review, software engineering group. The security of this data while it is being processed, transferred, and stored depends on the provider. stream International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA) 2011, 3(1):30–45. Resolving such problems may increase the usage of cloud thereby reducing the amount spent for resources. An analysis of security issues for cloud computing. Its very nature however makes it open to a variety of security issues that can affect both the providers and consumers of these cloud services. KH, DGR, EFM and EBF made a substantial contribution to the systematic review, security analysis of Cloud Computing, and revised the final manuscript version. With IaaS, cloud users have better control over the security compared to the other models as long there is no security hole in the virtual machine monitor [21]. We intend to complete all the others in the future. Cloud Computing appears as a computational paradigm as well as a distribution architecture and its main objective is to provide secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing service, with all computing resources visualized as services and delivered over the Internet [2, 3]. SaaS provides software delivered over the web while PaaS offers development tools to create SaaS applications. Owens D: Securing elasticity in the Cloud. In IEEE youth conference on information Computing and telecommunications (YC-ICT). The second greatest threat to PaaS users will be SSL-based attacks. The three basic operations for cloud data are transfer, store, and process. Jordan: Amman; 2011:1–6. 4 0 obj PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) ist eine vollständige Entwicklungs- und Bereitstellungsumgebung in der Cloud, über die Sie Zugang zu den erforderlichen Ressourcen erhalten, um verschiedenste Lösungen bereitstellen zu können – von einfachen cloudbasierten Apps bis hin zu ausgereiften cloudfähigen Unternehmensanwendungen. PaaS providers are responsible for securing the platform software stack that includes the runtime engine that runs the customer applications. 10.1145/1743546.1743565. Journal of Internet Services Applications 2010, 1(1):7–18. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach, they have conducted four types of attacks such as modify the hypervisor code, execute the injected code, modify the page table, and tamper from a return table. This set of relevant studies was again filtered with the exclusion criteria to give a set of studies which corresponds with 15 primary proposals [4, 6, 10, 16–27]. Fernandez EB, Ajaj O, Buckley I, Delessy-Gassant N, Hashizume K, Larrondo-Petrie MM: A survey of patterns for Web services Security and reliability standards. This work was supported in part by the NSF (grants OISE-0730065). An evaluation of this approach was not performed when this publication was published. PaaS & Security - Problems, Solutions, Vendors PaaS & Security - Platform as a Service Platform-as-a-Service (Paas) is a cloud computing model where the service provider offers a platform that enables customers to develop, run, and manage applications. The results of the systematic review are summarized in Table 1 which shows a summary of the topics and concepts considered for each approach. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Fully homomorphic encryption allows performing arbitrary computation on ciphertexts without being decrypted. An attacker can compromise the migration module in the VMM and transfer a victim virtual machine to a malicious server. Unlike traditional client-based software development using tools such as Microsoft Visual Studio , PaaS offers a shared development environment, so authentication, access control, and authorization mechanisms must combine to ensure that customers are kept completely separate from each other. [Online]. Accessing applications over the internet via web browser makes access from any network device easier, including public computers and mobile devices. Furthermore, we describe the relationship between these vulnerabilities and threats; how these vulnerabilities can be exploited in order to perform an attack, and also present some countermeasures related to these threats which try to solve or improve the identified problems. TVDc provides integrity by employing load-time attestation mechanism to verify the integrity of the system. Venkatesha S, Sadhu S, Kintali S: Survey of virtual machine migration techniques. Thus, a malicious Virtual Machine can monitor shared resources without being noticed by its VMM, so the attacker can infer some information about other virtual machines. Mather T, Kumaraswamy S, Latif S: Cloud Security and Privacy. Unlike physical servers, VMs have two boundaries: physical and virtual [24]. Sending or storing encrypted data in the cloud will ensure that data is secure. In Proceedings of the 2009 conference on Hot topics in cloud computing, San Diego, California. 1 0 obj IaaS essentially refers to purchasing the basic storage, processing power and networking to support the delivery of cloud computing applications. There are several security standard specifications [79] such as Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), WS-Security, Extensible Access Control Markup (XACML), XML Digital Signature, XML Encryption, Key Management Specification (XKMS), WS-Federation, WS-Secure Conversation, WS-Security Policy and WS-Trust. APTC’08, Third Asia-Pacific. In order to provide rollbacks, we need to make a “copy” (snapshot) of the virtual machine, which can result in the propagation of configuration errors and other vulnerabilities [12, 44]. It also creates confusion over which service provider is responsible once an attack happens. Also, it is clear that VM migration exposes the content of the VM to the network, which can compromise its data integrity and confidentiality. Virtualized environments are vulnerable to all types of attacks for normal infrastructures; however, security is a greater challenge as virtualization adds more points of entry and more interconnection complexity [45]. After executing the search chain on the selected sources we obtained a set of about 120 results which were filtered with the inclusion criteria to give a set of about 40 relevant studies. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Cloud Computing Security workshop. Journal in Computer Virology Springer 2012, 8: 85–97. Therefore, any vulnerability associated to these technologies also affects the cloud, and it can even have a significant impact. As described in this paper, storage, virtualization, and networks are the biggest security concerns in Cloud Computing. Morsy MA, Grundy J, Müller I: An analysis of the Cloud Computing Security problem. Also, PaaS users have to depend on both the security of web-hosted development tools and third-party services. The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. In 5th International conference on computer sciences and convergence information technology (ICCIT). Virtualization which allows multiple users to share a physical server is one of the major concerns for cloud users. Here are some of the security issues associated to IaaS. MASS’09. Traditional security mechanisms may not work well in cloud environments because it is a complex architecture that is composed of a combination of different technologies. However, it is true assuming that the encryption algorithms are strong. Security challenges in SaaS applications are not different from any web application technology, but traditional security solutions do not effectively protect it from attacks, so new approaches are necessary [21]. During this phase, the search in the defined sources must be executed and the obtained studies must be evaluated according to the established criteria. volume 4, Article number: 5 (2013) endobj VMs can be on, off, or suspended which makes it harder to detect malware. Each provider is responsible for securing his own services, which may result in an inconsistent combination of security models. Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges Dheeraj Singh Negi 2. One of the current cloud computing security issues and challenges affecting cloud security in 2020 is the problem of data breaches. Encryption techniques can be used to secure data while it is being transferred in and out of the cloud or stored in the provider’s premises. The authors in [78] claimed that TCCP has a significant downside due to the fact that all the transactions have to verify with the TC which creates an overload. Cloud security advantages. Shared responsibility in the cloud. Finally, we provide some conclusions. In National Days of Network Security and Systems (JNS2). Reuben JS: A survey on virtual machine Security. endobj Australia: Department of Computer Scinece Keele University, United Kingdom and Empirical Software Engineering, National ICT Australia Ltd; 2004. Syst. IEEE Security Privacy 2010, 8(6):40–47. - Provides convenience for users in accessing different OSs (as opposed to systems with multiple boot capability). From the perspective of the application development, developers face the complexity of building secure applications that may be hosted in the cloud. [66] presents an algorithm to create dynamic credentials for mobile cloud computing systems. For example, Amazon offers a public image repository where legitimate users can download or upload a VM image. As with SaaS and IaaS, PaaS depends on a secure and reliable network and secure web browser. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:1–8. Technical report, Dept. In IEEE International conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD’09). A malicious virtual machine can be migrated to another host (with another VMM) compromising it. The Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) or hypervisor is responsible for virtual machines isolation; therefore, if the VMM is compromised, its virtual machines may potentially be compromised as well. SIGOPS Oper. The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The keywords and related concepts that make up this question and that were used during the review execution are: secure Cloud systems, Cloud security, delivery models security, SPI security, SaaS security, Paas security, IaaS security, Cloud threats, Cloud vulnerabilities, Cloud recommendations, best practices in Cloud. In Proceedings of the 10th conference on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, Santa Fe, NM. IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA; 2010:211–216. J Syst Softw 2007, 80(4):571–583. For example, a malicious VM can infer some information about other VMs through shared memory or other shared resources without need of compromising the hypervisor [46]. Once again, security cannot be … Most developers still deal with application security issues in isolation, without understanding the security of the ""full stack"". In IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST), KS, USA. The security issues are a little different, depending on whether you use a public cloud or private cloud implementation of IaaS. Later, we will analyze the security issues in Cloud Computing identifying the main vulnerabilities for clouds, the most important threats in clouds, and all available countermeasures for these threats and vulnerabilities. PaaS refers to providing platform layer resources, including operating system support and software development frameworks that can be used to build higher-level services. IEEE Security Privacy 2010, 8(1):77–80. These issues are primarily related to the safety of the data flowing through and being stored in the cloud, with sample issues including data availability, data access and data privacy. Fernandez EB, Yoshioka N, Washizaki H: Modeling Misuse Patterns. Using covert channels, two VMs can communicate bypassing all the rules defined by the security module of the VMM [48]. Moving critical applications and sensitive data to public cloud environments is of great concern for those corporations that are moving beyond their data center’s network under their control. 2010. The SaaS provider is the one responsible for the security of the data while is being processed and stored [30]. [Online]. Besides secure development techniques, developers need to be educated about data legal issues as well, so that data is not stored in inappropriate locations. This threat is feasible because any legitimate user can create a VM image and publish it on the provider’s repository where other users can retrieve them.